Thursday, May 14, 2015

Graffiti Plaster Hands



Lesson Objective: Students will explore plaster building and oil pastels while learning about the Iconography and the Art Movement Graffiti. 

Project Requirements: 
Sketchbook: Students will complete a life size representation of their hand as a drawing. 
Their drawing should include a hand gesture, one symbol and a social/cultural message through color and symbols (Iconography)
They will finish their drawing using oil pastels
Final Project: Create a mold of your hand gesture in plaster
Using oil pastels and baby oil add pictures and symbols that represent you as an artist. 
Using knowledge gained from the year, address several principles of art: Balance, Scale,  Rhythm, Unity, Movement, Emphasis, Contrast, Pattern

CA Art Standards
1.5 Analyze the material used by a given artist and describe how its use influences the meaning of the work.
2.6 Create a two or three-dimensional work of art that addresses a social issue.
3.4 Discuss the purposes of art in selected contemporary cultures.
4.1 Articulate how personal beliefs, cultural traditions, and current social, economic, and political contexts influence the interpretation of the meaning or message in a work of art.
4.2 Compare the ways in which the meaning of a specific work of art has been affected over time because of changes in interpretation and context.
4.5 Employ the conventions of art criticism in writing and speaking about works of art.
5.2 Create a work of art that communicates a cross-cultural or universal theme taken from literature or history.

Assessment: 
Informal: Small group written critique
Formal: Artist Statement
Formal: Grading final sculpture

Modifications: 
English Language Learner: Handout for project, project samples, Power point with visuals, Critique for additional understanding, Demonstration of techniques, group activities to check for understanding
Special Needs: Handout for project, project samples, Power point with visuals, Critique for additional understanding, Demonstration of techniques
Accelerated Learner: Expand on skills learned to create a unique project. 
Advanced art students will be asked to increase the difficulty of their final sculpture They will also be expected incorporate more details and principles into the final project

Scaffolding adaptations: 
Students will revisit Contrast, Color, Pattern, Scale, Proportion, Movement, Rhythm  from the earlier learning. We will use similar visuals to refresh earlier learning.  Notes on Art history, Key Vocabulary and artists will be taken throughout discussions for added understanding. Creating sketchbook plans and Constructing final sculpture will be demo started in class using guided instruction.

Key Vocabulary: 
Graffiti Iconography Symbol Tagging Graffiti Five Pointz

Materials: 
Plaster 
Baby Oil
Oil Pastels
Q-tips
Markers and Graffiti machine 

DIRECT INSTRUCTION:
Day 1: Direct Instruction from PPT: 
Art Link: 
Critique: Morrison’s Grave 
What do the colors mean?
What do the symbols mean?
Teacher Models: 
Graffiti and Art History
Students take notes in their sketchbooks 
Teacher Monitors throughout discussion
Introduction: History of Graffiti and symbols in art
Graffiti is writing or drawings that have been scribbled, scratched, or sprayed illicitly on a wall or other surface, often in a public place.
Graffiti ranges from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings, and it has existed since ancient times. 
Examples date back to Ancient Egypt & Ancient Greece

Both "graffiti" and its singular form "graffito" are from the Italian word graffiato ("scratched"). 
"Graffiti" in art history: works of art produced by scratching a design into a surface. 

Spray Paint and marker pens have become the most commonly used graffiti materials. 
In most countries, marking or painting property without the property owner's consent is considered defacement and vandalism, which is a punishable crime.

1981: Fab 5 Freddy's friendship with Debbie Harry influenced Blondie's single "Rapture" 
The video featured Jean-Michel Basquiat, and offered the first glimpse of a depiction of elements of graffiti in hip hop culture. 

1980’s Keith Haring was another well-known graffiti artist who brought Pop Art and graffiti to the commercial mainstream. 

Then we saw the emergence of the new stencil graffiti genre. Some of the first examples were created in 1981

A "tag" is the most basic writing of an artist's name, it is simply a hand style. A graffiti writer's tag is his or her personalized signature.

Graffiti Artists use Iconography

Symbols in art
Works of art may not only have subject matter, they may also contain symbols. 
Iconography: the visual images and symbols used in a work of art or the study or interpretation of these      

Symbols are something represented in the work of art—an object, an action, or a pattern
Symbols can be nonrepresentational item such as a color or a line
To become a symbol, people have to adopt or accept

The cross is a symbol of Christianity, conventional symbol of suffering
The Sun as the symbol of life and strength, 
River is the symbol of eternal change and flowing
The eagle on the standard of the United States of America symbolizes strength

Check for Understanding: 
Monitor room during Pre-assessment in sketchbook
Monitor throughout discussion to be sure notes are being taken 
Presentation assessment

Small Group Art Activity: 
Artists will receive their graffiti artist and their bullet points
With this information they will research/determine/present the piece of art that best reflects the artist overall
They will present a critique of this artwork
The artwork must be street art, must have a symbol and message

Day 2: Art Activity: Artists will receive their graffiti artist and their bullet points
With this information they will research/determine/present the piece of art that best reflects the artist overall
They will present a critique of this artwork
The artwork must be street art, must have a symbol and message
Banksy
Margaret Kilgallen (Meta)
Shepard Fairey
Jean-Michel Basquiat
Keith Haring
Barry McGee (Twist)
Os Gemeos
Kaws

Artist: Margaret Kilgallen
Born in 1967 in Washington, DC
Received her BA in printmaking from Colorado College in 1989. 
Early experiences as a librarian and bookbinder contributed to her encyclopedic knowledge of signs, drawn from American folk tradition, printmaking, and letterpress. 
Kilgallen had a love of “things that show the evidence of the human hand.” 
She created room-size murals that recall a time when personal craft and handmade signs were the dominant aesthetic. 
Strong, independent women—walking, surfing, and biking—are featured in the artist’s compositions. 
Kilgallen’s work was presented at UCLA Hammer Museum. 
She died in June 2001 in San Francisco, where she lived with her husband, Barry McGee.
Graffiti Name: Meta 

Artist: Barry McGee
Barry McGee was born in 1966 in California
Lives and works in SF
In 1991, he received a BFA in painting and printmaking from the San Francisco Art Institute. His drawings, paintings, and mixed-media installations are inspired from urban culture
Incorporates elements like empty bottles, spray-paint cans, tagged signs, wrenches, & metal. 
McGee is also a graffiti artist, since the 1980s, where he is known by the tag name “Twist.” 
He views graffiti as a vital method of communication
Graffiti provides a larger/diverse  audience than the traditional museum. 
His trademark icon, a male caricature with sagging eyes and a bemused expression, recalls the homeless people and transients who call the streets their home. 
His work has been shown at San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and on streets and trains all over the United States. 

Artist: Kaws  (1974-      )
Brian Donnelly was born in Jersey City, New Jersey. 
He is best known as the artist KAWS. 
While living in Jersey City, KAWS began his career as a graffiti artist. 
He graduated from the School of Visual Arts in NY in 1996 with a BFA in illustration. 
Worked for Disney as a freelance animator. 
He made a name out of designing limited edition toys and clothing. 
He is also a world-renowned artist who exhibits in museums and galleries internationally. 
KAWS moved beyond the exclusive art market to occupy a more complex global market.
KAWS has designed for well-known companies such as Nike, Vans
In the early 2000s he also reworked familiar characters from: The Simpsons, Mickey Mouse and even SpongeBob SquarePants.
One of the more popular KAWS sculpture is based on the Mickey Mouse whose face is obscured by his both hands. 
The image was incorporated into a balloon for the 2012 Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade.

Artist Banksy (1974–       )
Bristol, England, United Kingdom
Banksy is the pseudonym of a "guerrilla" street artist known for his controversial, and often politically themed, stenciled pieces.
Banksy, a street artist whose identity remains unknown, 
He rose to prominence for his provocative stenciled pieces in the late 1990s. 
Banksy is the subject of a 2010 documentary, Exit Through the Gift Shop, which examines the relationship between commercial and street art.
Interest in Banksy escalated with the release of the 2010 documentary Exit Through the Gift Shop. 
The film was nominated for an Academy Award
In the late '90s, he began using stencils predominantly. 
Banksy's artwork is characterized by striking images, often combined with slogans. 
His work often engages political themes, satirically critiquing war, capitalism and greed. 
Common subjects include rats, apes, policemen, members of the royal family, and children.
Banksy's work on the West Bank barrier, between Israel and Palestine, received significant media attention in 2005. 
In October 2013, Banksy took to the streets of New York City. There he pledged to create a new piece of art for each day of his 30 day residency.
“We can't do anything to change the world until capitalism crumbles. In the meantime, we should all go shopping to console ourselves.”               —Banksy

Artist: Keith Haring (1958-1990)
He grew up in Pennsylvania, the oldest of four children. 
He started to draw right away: cartoons, creating characters
He had his first public show at 19
In 1978, Keith moved to New York City to go to School of Visual Arts (SVA)
In New York he found his style.
Then Keith worked on the black pieces of paper on the subways. 
He drew in the daytime: there were always people watching, from kids to art historians.”
Keith also started showing his work in art galleries
Hundreds of people came to his first show
He wanted everyone to be able to buy his work, so he opened a new store called the Pop Shop to sell his art on posters, buttons, T-shirts, and games.
He also worked with children in schools to paint large murals with them
He made paintings and sculptures for schools and hospitals 
In 1988, Keith got AIDS. At that time, doctors could not help people with AIDS. 
Keith knew he was going to die, he kept working as hard as he could until the end. 
He also made artwork about the sickness and gave money for doctors to search for a cure.

Artist: Jean-Michel Basquiat (1960 – 1988) 
A poet, musician, and graffiti prodigy in late-1970s New York, 
Jean-Michel Basquiat had honed his signature painting style of obsessive scribbling, elusive symbols and diagrams, and mask-and-skull imagery by the time he was 20. 
“I don’t think about art while I work,” he once said. “I think about life.” 
Often associated with Neo-expressionism, 
Basquiat received massive acclaim in only a few short years, 
His drawings and paintings married text and image, abstraction, and figuration, and historical information mixed with contemporary critique.
In 1983, he met Andy Warhol, who would come to be a mentor and idol. 
The two collaborated on a series of paintings before Warhol’s death in 1987, followed by Basquiat’s own passing in 1988
The Whitney Museum of American Art held a retrospective of his art in 1992.

Artist: OSGEMEOS (1974-         ) Brazil
OsGemoos translated as “THE TWINS”, 
Gustavo and Otavio Pandolfo, have worked together since birth
As children they developed a distinct way of communicating through artistic language. 
Introduction of hip hop culture in Brazil in the 1980s, 
OSGEMEOS found a direct connection to their dynamic world and a way to communicate with the public. 
Together they explored techniques of painting, drawing and sculpture, and had the streets as their place of study.
Their graffiti overtook the streets, becoming a language of its own with so many other influences and cultures, and it is constantly evolving.
The artists utilize this combined visual language, improvisation and a sense of playfulness to create a variety of projects worldwide.
They have held numerous solo and group shows in museums and galleries in several countries 
To understand the work of OSGEMEOS, you must allow reason to be replaced by the imaginary.

Artist: Shepard Fairey  (American, b.1970) 
He is a renowned graphic artist known for the images of Andre the Giant and the word obey. 
Fairey was born in Charleston, SC, 
He used his drawings on T-shirts and skateboards. 
The artist attended Idyllwild Arts Academy in Palm Springs, CA, and graduated in 1988. 
He earned his BFA from the Rhode Island School of Design in Providence, RI, in 1992. 
Fairey held a part-time job in a skateboarding shop; good for street culture and graffiti. 
The artist was also interested in punk music, 
Soon after that, Fairey introduced his Giant pieces to the streets via Graffiti Art. 
Two of Fairey's well-known pieces are Obey (1992) and Hope (2008). 
Hope is an iconic portrait of the American president Barack Obama that Fairey produced during the 2008 American presidential campaign. 
Fairey was commissioned by Time Magazine in 2011 to design a cover for the magazine. 
The artist lives and works in Los Angeles, CA.















Thursday, April 30, 2015

Gargoyle Scale Sculpture




 Lesson Objective: Students will use the pinch pot construction method to create a gargoyle from 1.5 lbs. of clay while exploring the art principle of proportion and scale.  
·Learn the functions of gargoyles & other apotropaic devices from an Art History perspective. 
·Learn about the significance and symbolism of gargoyles in Gothic architecture.

Project Requirements
Sketchbook: Create a full color drawing of final gargoyle sculpture 
Include: Detail
Texture
Scale
Proportion/Distortion
Final Project
Construction includes fully realized gargoyle structure
Sculpture created from a basic, hollow form (pinch pot method)
Exhibit evidence of proper use of clay hand-building techniques (score and slip additive, smooth rough edges, etc.)
Sculpture features are built-up or developed in the clay
Texture somewhere (scales, resemble stone, have "hair")
Students create disproportionate scale in two places (ex: huge eyes, small arms)
Details with texture and a Vent Hole to kiln 
Gargoyle art sculpture is complete from all sides and has focus on disproportionate
               scale.  

CA Standards
1.1 Analyze and discuss complex ideas, such as distortion, color theory, arbitrary color, scale, expressive content, and real versus virtual in works of art.
1.5 Compare how distortion is used in photography or video with how the artist uses distortion in painting or sculpture.
2.2 Plan and create works of art that reflect complex ideas, such as distortion, color theory, arbitrary color, scale, expressive content, and real versus virtual.
3.3 Investigate and discuss universal concepts expressed in works of art from diverse cultures.
3.4 Research the methods art historians use to determine the time, place, context, value, and culture that produced a given work of art.
4.1 Describe the relationship involving the art maker (artist), the making (process), the artwork (product), and the viewer.
5.2 Compare and contrast works of art, probing beyond the obvious and identifying psychological content found in the symbols and images.

Assessment
Informal: Written critique
Formal: Artist Statement
Formal: Grading final sculpture

Modifications
English Language Learner: Handout for project, project samples, Power point with visuals, Critique for additional understanding, Demonstration of techniques, group activities to check for understanding
Special Needs: Handout for project, project samples, Power point with visuals, Critique for additional understanding, Demonstration of techniques
Accelerated Learner: Expand on skills learned to create a unique project. 
Advanced art students will be asked to increase the difficulty of their final sculpture They will also be expected incorporate more details and principles into the final project

Scaffolding Adaptations
Students will revisit texture and scale from the earlier learning. We will use similar visuals to refresh earlier learning.  Notes on Art history, Key Vocabulary and artists will be taken throughout discussions for added understanding. Creating sketchbook plans and Constructing final sculpture will be demo started in class using guided instruction. 

Vocabulary & Techniques discussed/shown:

Bisque Firing: The first firing of unglazed ware at a low temperature. Removes all moisture from the clay and makes it easier to handle.
Glaze: A compound of minerals that is applied to the surface of greenware or bisqued ware that forms a glassy coating when fired.
Glaze Firing: A kiln firing that reaches temperatures at which glaze will melt. A glaze firing typically brings the clay body to its maturation point.
Leather Hard: The condition of a clay body that has dried somewhat but can still be carved or joined.
Slip: A mixture of clay and water; Works as glue to fuse two clay pieces together.
Score: Making small marks into the surface of the clay before adding slip or water to help fuse clay.
Pinch Pot: Creating a piece of pottery by pinching and molding a solid piece of clay with your fingers/hands.
Also: wedging, kneading, hollow, clay thickness, joining two clay pieces, smoothing & "cleaning" of clay surface, glaze types & proper application
Gargoyle: comes from the Latin word 'gurgulio', not only meaning "throat" but also describing the "gurgling" sound made by water as it ran through the figure.
Vent hole: holes that will allow air to escape during the firing and prevent the piece from exploding.
Architecture: is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures. 
Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. 
Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.
Apotropaic: Ap·o·tro·pa·ic adj. Intended to ward off evil: an apotropaic symbol.


Art History
Architecture: is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures. 
Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. 
Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.

In architecture, a gargoyle is a carved with a spout designed to convey water from a roof and away from the side of a building
Sprout prevents rainwater from running down masonry walls and eroding the mortar between. 
Architects often used multiple gargoyles on buildings to divide the flow of rainwater off the roof to minimize the potential damage from a rainstorm. 
A trough is cut in the back of the gargoyle and rainwater typically exits through the open mouth. 
Gargoyles are usually an elongated fantastic animal
The length of the gargoyle determines how far water is thrown from the wall. 

The term originates from the Latin word 'gurgulio, which in English is likely to mean "throat" or  "gullet"and similar words derived from the root gar, "to swallow", which represented the gurgling sound of water. When not constructed as a waterspout and only serving an ornamental or artistic function, the correct term for such a sculpture is a grotesque. 

Gargoyles on buildings also served another purpose. They act as “Apotropaic devices,” or items intended to scare away evil spirits. 

ap·o·tro·pa·ic adj. Intended to ward off evil: an apotropaic symbol.

Gargoyles are said to frighten off and protect those that it guards, such as a church, from any evil or harmful spirits.


Non-functional figures are technically called “Grotesques,” but most people still refer to them as Gargoyles. 

Gargoyles on buildings also served another purpose. They act as “Apotropaic devices,” or items intended to scare away evil spirits. 

Apotropaic devices have been used since ancient times to scare away not only spirits, but also foreigners and would-be attackers. 

During the 12th century, when gargoyles appeared in Europe, the Roman Catholic Church was growing stronger and converting many new people. Most of the population at this time were illiterate, and therefore images were very important to convey ideas.

Gargoyles were viewed in two ways by the church throughout history. The primary use was to convey the concept of evil through the form of the gargoyle, which was especially useful in sending a stark message to the common people, most of whom were illiterate.

Gargoyles also are said to scare evil spirits away from the church, this reassured congregants that evil was kept outside of the church’s walls. However, some medieval clergy viewed gargoyles as a form of idolatry.

Sacramento Assembly is the Capitol's only gargoyle.
The little devil is on the ceiling of the chambers. Standing in the front of the room, it's the second row of octagons from the left, three up from the front.
With lolling tongue and bug eyes,

Teaching Tips:
• When building pieces that have sealed hollow spaces, make sure that every hollow space has a vent hole. These holes will allow air to escape during the firing and prevent the piece from exploding.
Make sure that you allow plenty of time for the figures to dry as hand-built items are usually built thicker than pottery or slip cast items. 
Fire the pieces slower than you would for pots or slip cast pieces. 

Process:
1. Prior to working with clay, students are given a history about gargoyles. This includes:

purposes of gargoyles as rain spouts and medieval church/cathedrals architecture
purposes of gargoyles in superstition & religion (warding off evil, protecting church, etc.)
different types of gargoyles (grotesques, chimeras, human or animal/like)
It is beneficial to show students a variety of images including the various types of gargoyles.

2. The teacher will also demonstrate various clay techniques essential to creating their finished piece.

3. After students have learned the background of the lesson & clay techniques, they will create two sketches of ideas for their creature-with attention to the requirements. The final product may not resemble their sketches but this is a good way to get students' creative juices flowing.

4. Students create their gargoyle. They begin with a chunk of clay and should utilize the techniques they were taught to build from clay. This includes wedging and kneading their clay (if necessary), creating a hollow form using the pinch pot technique, and building onto their gargoyle in order to meet the requirements.

5. Once clay pieces are completed, dried, and bisque fired, students will glaze their work and have it fired again. To create a more authentic stone-like creature, teachers may choose to have students use under-glaze only (which is not shiny) rather than glaze.

*Teachers may have students make their gargoyle out of clay but use paint instead of glaze to complete the project.

MATERIALS
Clay
Clay tools
Slip
Glaze is all colors 

DIRECT INSTRUCTION:
Day 1: Direct Instruction from PPT: 
Art Link: 
What is a gargoyle?
What is their purpose
Have you studied them in history? 
Where does this gargoyle live? 
(Sacramento Assembly)
Pre-assessment: Sketchbook: Answer questions in sketchbook
Critique Review: Describe, analyze, interpret 
Teacher Models: 
Gargoyles and Art History
Students take notes in their sketchbooks 
Teacher Monitors throughout discussion

Check for Understanding: 
Monitor room during Pre-assessment in sketchbook
Monitor throughout discussion to be sure notes are being taken 
Presentation assessment
Art Activity: Critique Assembly Gargoyle 

Discussion:Architecture 
Architecture: is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures. 
Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. 
Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.
Gargoyles are usually an elongated fantastic animal
The length of the gargoyle determines how far water is thrown from the wall. 

The term originates from the Latin word 'gurgulio, which in English is likely to mean "throat" or  "gullet"and similar words derived from the root gar, "to swallow", which represented the gurgling sound of water. 

When not constructed as a waterspout and only serving an ornamental or artistic function, the correct term for such a sculpture is a grotesque. 

Gargoyles on buildings also served another purpose. They act as “Apotropaic devices,” or items intended to scare away evil spirits. 

Gargoyles are said to frighten off and protect those that it guards, such as a church, from any evil or harmful spirits.

During the 12th century, when gargoyles appeared in Europe, the Roman Catholic Church was growing stronger and converting many new people. Most of the population at this time were illiterate, and therefore images were very important to convey ideas.

Gargoyles also are said to scare evil spirits away from the church, this reassured congregants that evil was kept outside of the church’s walls. However, some medieval clergy viewed gargoyles as a form of idolatry.

Day 2: Teacher Models: 
Texture and Pinch Pot 
Students take notes in their sketchbooks 
Teacher Monitors throughout discussion
Check for Understanding: 
Monitor room during Pre-assessment in sketchbook
Monitor throughout discussion to be sure notes are being taken 

Day 3: Art Link:
Sketchbook Activity: 
Begin to sketch your final clay project
Sketchbook Activity: 
Continue to sketch your final clay project add texture, color and scale

Day 4:
Art Link: 
What mood does this piece show? 
Discussion: Sculpture
Additive
Subtractive
Scoring and slipping
Teacher Models: 
Clay construction Pinch Pot and slab pot
Students take notes in their sketchbooks 
Teacher Monitors throughout discussion
Check for Understanding: 
Monitor room during Pre-assessment in sketchbook
Monitor throughout discussion to be sure notes are being taken 
Presentation assessment

FINAL PROJECT Painting: Day 9, 10, 11, 12
Students will paint clay sculpture using Pop Art style

Students will use color/texture to achieve an emotion or mood







Saturday, April 25, 2015

Embossed Funk Faces




 Lesson Objective: Students explore the medium of metal embossing to create relief in a metal medium. Students will gain knowledge in proportion of the face and complete a portrait using accurate proportion and self expression

Project Requirements: 
Sketchbook: Complete Portrait in full color with emotion, FUN and self expression
Full Page, Full Color Study to prepare for foil medium
Final Project: Complete a relief “Funk Face” in metal Tooling Foil Embossing
Use of full sheet of Tooling Fool and Full Color
Face in accurate proportion with relief based on class discussions
Funk Influences: Fun, Self Expression, Political/Social Message & Bold Color 
Mounted on foam and free-standing

Direct Instruction: Draw and shade each part of the face: Eye, Nose, Mouth, Ear. Draw a face in Blind Contour for pre-assessment
Discuss and practice drawing each item of the face over five days
Practice drawing a complete portrait in pencil

Key Vocabulary: Students will be able comprehend and use these terms in relation to drawing 
Pupil Cornea Highlights Shade Tint Relief
Iris Sclera Tragus Tip Lateral side Self Expression
Tear Duct Root Dorsum Columella Vermilion zone Philtrum Embossing Proportion

CA STANDARDS
1.3 Research and analyze the work of an artist and write about the artist's distinctive style and its contribution to the meaning of the work.
2.1 Solve a visual arts problem that involves the effective use of the elements of art and the principles of design. 
2.4 Review and refine observational drawing skills.
2.6 Create a two or three-dimensional work of art that addresses a social issue.
2.4 Review and refine observational drawing skills.
3.1 Identify contemporary styles and discuss the diverse social, economic, and political developments reflected in the works of art examined.
4.1 Articulate how personal beliefs, cultural traditions, and current social, economic, and political contexts influence the interpretation of the meaning or message in a work of art.
4.2 Compare the ways in which the meaning of a specific work of art has been affected over time because of changes in interpretation and context.
Make Informed Judgments
5.2 Create a work of art that communicates a cross-cultural or universal theme taken from literature or history

PURPOSE: Complete an accurately proportioned self-portrait in relief while engaged in CA Funk Inspired self-expression

Art History
By the middle of the 1950s Abstract Expressionism had held sway in the Art World for a full decade, and there existed certain artists who felt the adulation had gone on for roughly nine years too long. 

In an uncoordinated artistic rebellion, a number of new movements began to gain traction. 
The one characteristic these movements had in common was shunning the abstract in favor of the tangible. This article will look at the delightfully-named Funk Art movement.

Funk Art? From Whence Came that Name?
The romantic version of Funk Art's etymology says it came from jazz music, where "funky" was a term of approbation. 
Jazz is also perceived as unrefined and -- especially with late 50s free jazz -- unorthodox. 
This fits neatly, for Funk Art was nothing if not unrefined and unorthodox. 

However, it is probably closer to the truth to say that Funk Art came from the original, negative meaning of "funk:" a powerful stench, an assault on one's senses.

Whichever version you believe, the "baptism" occurred in 1967, when UC Berkeley Art History professor and Founding Director of the Berkeley Art Museum, Peter Selz, curated the Funk exhibition.

Where Was Funk Art Created?
The movement got its start in the San Francisco Bay area, specifically at the University of California, Davis. 
In fact, many of the artists who participated in Funk Art were on the studio art faculty. Funk Art never outgrew being a regional movement, which is just as well. 
The Bay Area, the epicenter of the underground, was probably the one place in which it could have thrived, let alone survived.

How Long Was the Movement?
Funk Art's heyday was in the mid- to late-1960s. Naturally, its beginnings were much earlier; the (very) late-1950s seem to be the point of origin. 
By the end of the 1970s, things were pretty much over as far as artistic movements go. To include all possibilities, we can say Funk Art was produced for no more than two decades -- and 15 years would be more realistic. 
It was fun while it lasted, but Funk did not have a long life.

What Are the Key Characteristics of Funk Art?
Found and Everyday Objects
Autobiographical Subjects
(Frequently Inappropriate) Humor
Audience Engagement
Elevation of Ceramics
Historic Precedent

Artists Associated with Funk Art

Robert Arneson
Wallace Berman
Bruce Conner
Roy De Forest
Jay DeFeo
Viola Frey
David Gilhooly
Wally Hedrick
Robert H. Hudson
Jess
Ed Kienholz
Manuel Neri
Gladys Nilsson
Jim Nutt
Peter Saul
Richard Shaw
William T. Wiley

INSTRUCTION
Students will be instructed on how to draw a segment of the face each day, beginning with the eyes. They will spend half the class in instruction and half the class practicing their new skills. Over the course of four days, they will learn the eye, nose, mouth, ear, and proportions of the face. They will complete a whole portrait in pencil before beginning their self expression, self portrait inspired by the artist Robert Arneson 

MATERIALS: Sketch Books
Pencils
Tolling Foil
Wooden skewer
Sharpie Markers
Black Foam Core 
Foam Core Risers
DIRECT INSTRUCTION:
Day 1: Power Point Presentation EYE: 
Opening: In sketch Books, Blind Contour Face activity
Blind Contour Drawing: 
Draw the face across from you 
Grab all details Eyes, Nose, Mouth, ears, Hair, etc.
Two Minutes

Students will: Independently complete the activity
Discuss the completed activity with group members 
Share final drawing with group
Participate in class discussion on the activity

Review: Happy Mistakes make better artists
HOLDING YOUR PENCIL
Discussion: Parts of the eye
Step by step of the eye 
Try each step in sketch book
Shading Techniques
ACTIVITY: Draw second eye next to first eye use mirror
Looking at subject as you draw it
MIRROR
Draw a partners eye from your table
CLOSURE: How are you feeling about drawing eyes? 

Teacher Models: 
Step by step of the eye 
Students simultaneously draw an eye in their sketchbooks
Shading the eye using mirror and finding highlights and shades
Check for Understanding: 
Monitor room During Step by Step Modeling in sketchbook
Monitor throughout second eye and partner eye
Day 2: Power Point Presentation NOSE 
Opening: In sketch Books, 
Think Pair Share: Eye activity Power Point
DISCUSSION: The parts of the nose
Step by step of the front nose using a mirror
Try each step in sketch book
Shading Techniques
Draw second nose next to first nose
Looking at subject as you draw it
MIRROR
DISCUSSION: Step by step of side nose 
ACTIVITY: Draw four rectangles and fill them with different noses
CLOSURE: How are you feeling about drawing the nose? 
                                           Like/dislike/rules/etc.
Teacher Models: 
Step by step of the front and side nose
Students simultaneously draw a nose in their sketchbooks
Shading the nose using mirror and finding highlights and shades
Check for Understanding: 
Monitor room During Step by Step Modeling in sketchbook
Monitor throughout four nose drawing activity
Day 2: Power Point Presentation Ear
Opening: In sketch Books, Draw a nose from the visual directions
DISCUSSION: The parts of the EAR
Step by step of the ear from the front
Using a mirror
Draw your ear
As you see it from the front
Step by step of ear from the side
ACTIVITY: Draw second ear next to first ear
Draw a partners ear from your table
Try each step from the sketch book
CLOSURE: How are you feeling about drawing the mouth? 
                                           Like/dislike/rules/etc.
Teacher Models: 
Step by step of the ear from the front
Students simultaneously draw an ear in their sketchbooks
Students have a moment to try ear from the front
Step by step of the ear from the side
Students simultaneously draw a ear in their sketchbooks
Students have a moment to try ear from the side by drawing 
A partner’s ear
Shade the new ear finding highlights and shades
Check for Understanding: 
Monitor room During Step by Step Modeling in sketchbook
Monitor throughout second mouth and partner mouth

Day 3: Power Point Presentation MOUTH
Opening: In sketch Books, Draw a nose from the visual directions
DISCUSSION: The parts of the Mouth
Step by step of the mouth using a mirror
Try each step in sketch book
Shading Techniques
ACTIVITY: Draw second mouth next to first mouth
Draw two eyes, a nose and a mouth on the same plain
Time permitting: add Two ears
CLOSURE: How are you feeling about drawing the mouth? 
                                           Like/dislike/rules/etc.
Teacher Models: 
Step by step of the mouth
Students simultaneously draw a mouth in their sketchbooks
Shading The mouth using mirror and finding highlights and shades
Check for Understanding: 
Monitor room During Step by Step Modeling in sketchbook
Monitor throughout second mouth and partner mouth
Day 3: Power Point Presentation: Facial Proportion
Opening: Think-Pair-Share: facial proportion and features
DISCUSSION: Step by step of how features are placed on the 
Face based on proportion
Step-by step: Adding Hair
Visual Spacial learners: 4 quick visuals on face proportion
ACTIVITY: Students draw and shade a face (Two days)
Teacher Models: 
Step by step facial proportion
Students simultaneously draw proportion rules 
In sketchbooks
Check for Understanding: 
Monitor room During Step by Step Modeling in sketchbook
Monitor throughout second mouth and partner mouth

Day 4: Power Point Presentation: Artist: Robert Arneson, Self Expression, Funk Art
CA Funk Information
Artist Information
Self Expression
Self Portrait
Final Artwork assigned
Day 4: Art History: CA Funk: 
By the middle of the 1950s Abstract Expressionism had held sway in the Art World for a full decade, 
Certain artists felt the adulation had gone on for nine years too long. 
New movements began to gain traction. 
Funk Art? From Whence Came that Name?
Funk Art's came from jazz music, where "funky" was a term of approbation. 
Jazz is perceived as unrefined and -- especially with late 50s free jazz -- unorthodox. 
This fits neatly, for Funk Art was nothing if not unrefined and unorthodox. 
Also: Funk Art came from the negative meaning of "funk:" a powerful stench, an assault on one's senses.
1967, when UC Berkeley Art History professor, Peter Selz, curated the Funk exhibition.
Where Was Funk Art Created?
Started in the San Francisco Bay area: University of California, Davis. 
Many of the artists who participated in Funk Art were on the studio art faculty. 
Funk Art never outgrew being a regional movement
How Long Was the Movement?
Funk Art's heyday: mid- to late-1960s. Beginnings earlier; the (very) late-1950s. 
End of the 1970s, things were over as far as artistic movements go. 
Funk Art was produced for no more than two decades -- and 15 years would be more realistic. 

What Are the Key Characteristics of Funk Art?
Found and Everyday Objects Autobiographical Subjects
(Frequently Inappropriate) Humor Audience Engagement
Elevation of Ceramics Historic Precedent

Robert Arneson (1930-1992)       Born:  Benicia, CA
Robert Arneson was encouraged by his father to draw. 
He drew cartoons for a local newspaper as a teenager. 
He studied art education at the California College of Arts and Crafts in Oakland 
He taught in a local high school, where he became interested in ceramics. 
He went on to receive an MFA from Mills College in 1958. 
Arneson became head of the ceramics department at the University of California at Davis in 1962
Arneson was greatly influenced by the expressionist work of fellow Californian Peter Voulkos, 
Arneson rejected the idea that ceramic artists produce only utilitarian or decorative items. 
He began creating non-functional clay pieces, contradicting formal traditions previously associated with this medium. 
He created a number of self-portraits using photographs, mirrors, and drawings;
Arneson was part of the dynamic group of irreverent California Pop artists whose work has come to be known as "Funk Art." After the artist became ill with liver cancer in the early 1980s, his work became progressively more somber in tone. Arneson's own confrontation with death made him aware of society's flirtation with mass destruction.

Assessment
Informal: Written critique
Formal: Artist Statement
Formal: Grading final sculpture

Modifications
English Language Learner: Handout for project, project samples, Power point with visuals, Critique for additional understanding, Demonstration of techniques, group activities to check for understanding
Special Needs: Handout for project, project samples, Power point with visuals, Critique for additional understanding, Demonstration of techniques
Accelerated Learner: Expand on skills learned to create a unique project. 
Advanced art students will be asked to increase the difficulty of their final sculpture They will also be expected incorporate more details and principles into the final project

Scaffolding Adaptations
Students will revisit texture and scale from the earlier learning. We will use similar visuals to refresh earlier learning.  Notes on Art history, Key Vocabulary and artists will be taken throughout discussions for added understanding. Creating sketchbook plans and Constructing final sculpture will be demo started in class using guided instruction.