Thursday, April 30, 2015

Gargoyle Scale Sculpture




 Lesson Objective: Students will use the pinch pot construction method to create a gargoyle from 1.5 lbs. of clay while exploring the art principle of proportion and scale.  
·Learn the functions of gargoyles & other apotropaic devices from an Art History perspective. 
·Learn about the significance and symbolism of gargoyles in Gothic architecture.

Project Requirements
Sketchbook: Create a full color drawing of final gargoyle sculpture 
Include: Detail
Texture
Scale
Proportion/Distortion
Final Project
Construction includes fully realized gargoyle structure
Sculpture created from a basic, hollow form (pinch pot method)
Exhibit evidence of proper use of clay hand-building techniques (score and slip additive, smooth rough edges, etc.)
Sculpture features are built-up or developed in the clay
Texture somewhere (scales, resemble stone, have "hair")
Students create disproportionate scale in two places (ex: huge eyes, small arms)
Details with texture and a Vent Hole to kiln 
Gargoyle art sculpture is complete from all sides and has focus on disproportionate
               scale.  

CA Standards
1.1 Analyze and discuss complex ideas, such as distortion, color theory, arbitrary color, scale, expressive content, and real versus virtual in works of art.
1.5 Compare how distortion is used in photography or video with how the artist uses distortion in painting or sculpture.
2.2 Plan and create works of art that reflect complex ideas, such as distortion, color theory, arbitrary color, scale, expressive content, and real versus virtual.
3.3 Investigate and discuss universal concepts expressed in works of art from diverse cultures.
3.4 Research the methods art historians use to determine the time, place, context, value, and culture that produced a given work of art.
4.1 Describe the relationship involving the art maker (artist), the making (process), the artwork (product), and the viewer.
5.2 Compare and contrast works of art, probing beyond the obvious and identifying psychological content found in the symbols and images.

Assessment
Informal: Written critique
Formal: Artist Statement
Formal: Grading final sculpture

Modifications
English Language Learner: Handout for project, project samples, Power point with visuals, Critique for additional understanding, Demonstration of techniques, group activities to check for understanding
Special Needs: Handout for project, project samples, Power point with visuals, Critique for additional understanding, Demonstration of techniques
Accelerated Learner: Expand on skills learned to create a unique project. 
Advanced art students will be asked to increase the difficulty of their final sculpture They will also be expected incorporate more details and principles into the final project

Scaffolding Adaptations
Students will revisit texture and scale from the earlier learning. We will use similar visuals to refresh earlier learning.  Notes on Art history, Key Vocabulary and artists will be taken throughout discussions for added understanding. Creating sketchbook plans and Constructing final sculpture will be demo started in class using guided instruction. 

Vocabulary & Techniques discussed/shown:

Bisque Firing: The first firing of unglazed ware at a low temperature. Removes all moisture from the clay and makes it easier to handle.
Glaze: A compound of minerals that is applied to the surface of greenware or bisqued ware that forms a glassy coating when fired.
Glaze Firing: A kiln firing that reaches temperatures at which glaze will melt. A glaze firing typically brings the clay body to its maturation point.
Leather Hard: The condition of a clay body that has dried somewhat but can still be carved or joined.
Slip: A mixture of clay and water; Works as glue to fuse two clay pieces together.
Score: Making small marks into the surface of the clay before adding slip or water to help fuse clay.
Pinch Pot: Creating a piece of pottery by pinching and molding a solid piece of clay with your fingers/hands.
Also: wedging, kneading, hollow, clay thickness, joining two clay pieces, smoothing & "cleaning" of clay surface, glaze types & proper application
Gargoyle: comes from the Latin word 'gurgulio', not only meaning "throat" but also describing the "gurgling" sound made by water as it ran through the figure.
Vent hole: holes that will allow air to escape during the firing and prevent the piece from exploding.
Architecture: is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures. 
Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. 
Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.
Apotropaic: Ap·o·tro·pa·ic adj. Intended to ward off evil: an apotropaic symbol.


Art History
Architecture: is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures. 
Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. 
Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.

In architecture, a gargoyle is a carved with a spout designed to convey water from a roof and away from the side of a building
Sprout prevents rainwater from running down masonry walls and eroding the mortar between. 
Architects often used multiple gargoyles on buildings to divide the flow of rainwater off the roof to minimize the potential damage from a rainstorm. 
A trough is cut in the back of the gargoyle and rainwater typically exits through the open mouth. 
Gargoyles are usually an elongated fantastic animal
The length of the gargoyle determines how far water is thrown from the wall. 

The term originates from the Latin word 'gurgulio, which in English is likely to mean "throat" or  "gullet"and similar words derived from the root gar, "to swallow", which represented the gurgling sound of water. When not constructed as a waterspout and only serving an ornamental or artistic function, the correct term for such a sculpture is a grotesque. 

Gargoyles on buildings also served another purpose. They act as “Apotropaic devices,” or items intended to scare away evil spirits. 

ap·o·tro·pa·ic adj. Intended to ward off evil: an apotropaic symbol.

Gargoyles are said to frighten off and protect those that it guards, such as a church, from any evil or harmful spirits.


Non-functional figures are technically called “Grotesques,” but most people still refer to them as Gargoyles. 

Gargoyles on buildings also served another purpose. They act as “Apotropaic devices,” or items intended to scare away evil spirits. 

Apotropaic devices have been used since ancient times to scare away not only spirits, but also foreigners and would-be attackers. 

During the 12th century, when gargoyles appeared in Europe, the Roman Catholic Church was growing stronger and converting many new people. Most of the population at this time were illiterate, and therefore images were very important to convey ideas.

Gargoyles were viewed in two ways by the church throughout history. The primary use was to convey the concept of evil through the form of the gargoyle, which was especially useful in sending a stark message to the common people, most of whom were illiterate.

Gargoyles also are said to scare evil spirits away from the church, this reassured congregants that evil was kept outside of the church’s walls. However, some medieval clergy viewed gargoyles as a form of idolatry.

Sacramento Assembly is the Capitol's only gargoyle.
The little devil is on the ceiling of the chambers. Standing in the front of the room, it's the second row of octagons from the left, three up from the front.
With lolling tongue and bug eyes,

Teaching Tips:
• When building pieces that have sealed hollow spaces, make sure that every hollow space has a vent hole. These holes will allow air to escape during the firing and prevent the piece from exploding.
Make sure that you allow plenty of time for the figures to dry as hand-built items are usually built thicker than pottery or slip cast items. 
Fire the pieces slower than you would for pots or slip cast pieces. 

Process:
1. Prior to working with clay, students are given a history about gargoyles. This includes:

purposes of gargoyles as rain spouts and medieval church/cathedrals architecture
purposes of gargoyles in superstition & religion (warding off evil, protecting church, etc.)
different types of gargoyles (grotesques, chimeras, human or animal/like)
It is beneficial to show students a variety of images including the various types of gargoyles.

2. The teacher will also demonstrate various clay techniques essential to creating their finished piece.

3. After students have learned the background of the lesson & clay techniques, they will create two sketches of ideas for their creature-with attention to the requirements. The final product may not resemble their sketches but this is a good way to get students' creative juices flowing.

4. Students create their gargoyle. They begin with a chunk of clay and should utilize the techniques they were taught to build from clay. This includes wedging and kneading their clay (if necessary), creating a hollow form using the pinch pot technique, and building onto their gargoyle in order to meet the requirements.

5. Once clay pieces are completed, dried, and bisque fired, students will glaze their work and have it fired again. To create a more authentic stone-like creature, teachers may choose to have students use under-glaze only (which is not shiny) rather than glaze.

*Teachers may have students make their gargoyle out of clay but use paint instead of glaze to complete the project.

MATERIALS
Clay
Clay tools
Slip
Glaze is all colors 

DIRECT INSTRUCTION:
Day 1: Direct Instruction from PPT: 
Art Link: 
What is a gargoyle?
What is their purpose
Have you studied them in history? 
Where does this gargoyle live? 
(Sacramento Assembly)
Pre-assessment: Sketchbook: Answer questions in sketchbook
Critique Review: Describe, analyze, interpret 
Teacher Models: 
Gargoyles and Art History
Students take notes in their sketchbooks 
Teacher Monitors throughout discussion

Check for Understanding: 
Monitor room during Pre-assessment in sketchbook
Monitor throughout discussion to be sure notes are being taken 
Presentation assessment
Art Activity: Critique Assembly Gargoyle 

Discussion:Architecture 
Architecture: is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures. 
Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. 
Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.
Gargoyles are usually an elongated fantastic animal
The length of the gargoyle determines how far water is thrown from the wall. 

The term originates from the Latin word 'gurgulio, which in English is likely to mean "throat" or  "gullet"and similar words derived from the root gar, "to swallow", which represented the gurgling sound of water. 

When not constructed as a waterspout and only serving an ornamental or artistic function, the correct term for such a sculpture is a grotesque. 

Gargoyles on buildings also served another purpose. They act as “Apotropaic devices,” or items intended to scare away evil spirits. 

Gargoyles are said to frighten off and protect those that it guards, such as a church, from any evil or harmful spirits.

During the 12th century, when gargoyles appeared in Europe, the Roman Catholic Church was growing stronger and converting many new people. Most of the population at this time were illiterate, and therefore images were very important to convey ideas.

Gargoyles also are said to scare evil spirits away from the church, this reassured congregants that evil was kept outside of the church’s walls. However, some medieval clergy viewed gargoyles as a form of idolatry.

Day 2: Teacher Models: 
Texture and Pinch Pot 
Students take notes in their sketchbooks 
Teacher Monitors throughout discussion
Check for Understanding: 
Monitor room during Pre-assessment in sketchbook
Monitor throughout discussion to be sure notes are being taken 

Day 3: Art Link:
Sketchbook Activity: 
Begin to sketch your final clay project
Sketchbook Activity: 
Continue to sketch your final clay project add texture, color and scale

Day 4:
Art Link: 
What mood does this piece show? 
Discussion: Sculpture
Additive
Subtractive
Scoring and slipping
Teacher Models: 
Clay construction Pinch Pot and slab pot
Students take notes in their sketchbooks 
Teacher Monitors throughout discussion
Check for Understanding: 
Monitor room during Pre-assessment in sketchbook
Monitor throughout discussion to be sure notes are being taken 
Presentation assessment

FINAL PROJECT Painting: Day 9, 10, 11, 12
Students will paint clay sculpture using Pop Art style

Students will use color/texture to achieve an emotion or mood







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